2 weeks ago a new PostgreSQL major version with the number 10 was released (note the new numbering scheme!) and I already covered my favorite parts from the official release notes from a DBA’s point of view already here, so also take a look there if interested on the operational side as well. Here I would like to look at the list of changes from a developers angle though (disclaimer – not doing too much development these days though, just keeping track of things). Some features are of course shared with the DBA part, but still a lot of new stuff – enjoy!
My favourites for version 10 from a Developer point of view
- Logical replication
The long awaited feature enables easy setup and minimal performance penalties for application scenarios where you only want to replicate a single table or a subset of tables or all tables, enabling totally new application scenarios and enabling also zero downtime upgrades for following major versions! The top feature of version 10 for me.
- Declarative partitioning
Old way of managing partitions via inheritance and creating triggers to re-route inserts to correct tables was bothersome to say the least, not to mention the performance impact. Currently supported are „range“ and „list“ partitioning schemes. If someone is missing „hash“ partitioning available in some DB engines, one could use „list“ partitioning with expressions to achieve the same.
- Multiple hostname/IP support in client connection strings
Libpq will connect to the first responsive server in the list. This helps greatly in providing some basic high-availability to applications without any extra software! FYI – one needs to update the Postgres client libraries and possibly also your database driver of choice to make use of the feature.
- Possibility to do simple read balancing between multiple hosts
Now there’s a new Libpq connect parameter called target_session_attrs, with possible values “read-write” and “any” so that by listing replicas first in your connect string (see previous list item) and choosing “any” one can do simple read balancing. For writes one of course needs another connection (according pools recommended) with “read-write” then, so not really transparent (transparent way possible with pgpool2 for example) but might be just good enough.
- Commit tracking
For highly critical systems it is now possible to check if the last transaction was committed, given that the txid was stored locally. It can for example happen that the transaction was committed nicely and just the acknowledgement didn’t make it over the network to the client.
- Quorum commit for Synchronous Replication
For highly critical systems it’s now possible to say that in addition to the connected server, the commit has to be propagated to any number of other servers. Previously the only option was a priority list, making managing server failures more difficult.
- Cross-column optimizer statistics
Such stats need to be created manually on a set of columns of a table, to point out that the values are actually somehow dependent on each other. This will enable to counter slow query problems where the planner thinks there will be very little data returned (multiplication of probabilities yields very small numbers usually) and will choose for example a „nested loop“ join that does usually not perform too well on bigger amounts of data.
- Usable Hash indexes
Hash indexes are now WAL-logged thus crash safe and ready for wider use. They also received some performance improvements for simple searches so that they should actually be faster than standard B-tree indexes for bigger amounts of data. Bigger index size though too and only suitable for equality searches.
- Transition tables to inspect all changed rows of a statement from a trigger
Quite an awesome feature – now it is possible to look at both old and new data of the affected rows for a statement level trigger. This can be used to calculate some aggregates for example or to reject some updates if suspiciously too many rows were changed.
- Allow the specification of a function name without arguments in DDL commands, if it is unique
Now one can drop a function based on name only. This is one of those small things that adds up if you work a lot with stored procedures as 99% of time the names are indeed unique. Less typing is good 🙂
- Allow ENUM values to be renamed
This could be done previously only by hacking the system catalogs…which could bite you if not being careful.
- Add full text search support for JSON and JSONB
In addition to some smaller JSONB stuff this addition once again assures us that JSONB is first class citizen in Postgres and mixed applications (NoSQL + SQL) have even more options.
- file_fdw extension can now execute a program to read data
Postgres has long had the feature to treat simple files as virtual tables but this feature could be a huge win for “warm data” / “cold data” scenarios where archive data grows too big but is occasionally still needed. When compressing Postgres data one can easily win 10-30x on disk size by the way. A sample from the Postgres Wiki:
CREATE FOREIGN TABLE test(a int, b text) SERVER csv OPTIONS (program 'gunzip -c /tmp/data.czv.gz');
That was that – step by next year for Postgres 11 !