Index bloat reduced in PostgreSQL v14
© Laurenz Albe 2021 PostgreSQL v12 brought more efficient storage for indexes, and v13 improved that even more by adding deduplication of index entries. But Peter Geoghegan is not done yet! PostgreSQL v14 will bring “bottom-up” index entry deletion, which is targeted at reducing unnecessary page splits, index bloat and fragmentation of heavily updated indexes. […]
From MD5 to scram-sha-256 in PostgreSQL
© Laurenz Albe 2021 Since v10, PostgreSQL has provided support for scram-sha-256 for password hashing and authentication. This article describes how you can adapt your application safely. Why do we need scram-sha-256? PostgreSQL uses cryptographic hashing for two purposes: The actual database password is a hash of the clear text password entered by the user. […]
About cross join in PostgreSQL
© Laurenz Albe 2021 For many people, “cross join” is something to be afraid of. They remember the time when they forgot the join condition and the DBA was angry, because the query hogged the CPU and filled the disk. However, there are valid use cases for cross joins which I want to explore in […]
Disabling autocommit in PostgreSQL can damage your health
© Laurenz Albe 2021 When analyzing customer’s problems, I have seen the mess you can get into if you disable autocommit in your interactive client, so I’d like to bring this topic to a wider audience. What is autocommit? In PostgreSQL, like in any other ACID-complicant database, each statement runs in a transaction: if the […]
How to interpret PostgreSQL EXPLAIN ANALYZE output
© Laurenz Albe 2021 EXPLAIN ANALYZE is the key to optimizing SQL statements in PostgreSQL. This article does not attempt to explain everything there is to it. Rather, I want to give you a brief introduction, explain what to look for and show you some helpful tools to visualize the output. How to call EXPLAIN […]
UUID, serial or identity columns for PostgreSQL auto-generated primary keys?
© Laurenz Albe 2021 Sometimes customers ask me about the best choice for auto-generated primary keys. In this article, I’ll explore the options and give recommendations. Why auto-generated primary keys? Every table needs a primary key. In a relational database, it is important to be able to identify an individual table row. If you wonder […]
What to return from a PostgreSQL row level trigger?
© Laurenz Albe 2021 In this article, I’ll talk about row level triggers, which are the most frequently used kind of triggers. I will describe what the return value of the trigger function means and suggest a useful code simplification. Triggers in PostgreSQL A trigger in PostgreSQL consists of two parts: a trigger function the […]
When to use tablespaces in PostgreSQL
© Laurenz Albe 2021 Users with an Oracle background consider tablespaces very important and are surprised that you can find so little information about them in PostgreSQL. This article will explain what they are, when they are useful and whether or not you should use them. What is a tablespace Essentially, a tablespace in PostgreSQL […]
New target_session_attrs settings for high availability and scaling in PostgreSQL v14
© Laurenz Albe 2021 PostgreSQL commit ee28cacf61 has added new options for the target_session_attrs connection parameter. This article explores how the new options can be used to simplify high availability and horizontal scaling solutions. What is target_session_attrs? The PostgreSQL client shared library libpq has support for connection strings to more than one database server: In […]
Estimating connection pool size with PostgreSQL database statistics
© Laurenz Albe 2021 PostgreSQL v14 has new connection statistics in pg_stat_database. In this article, I want to explore one application for them: estimating the correct size for a connection pool. New connection statistics in v14 Commit 960869da080 introduced some new statistics to pg_stat_database: session_time: total time spent by sessions in the database active_time: time […]
The shibboleth of PostgreSQL
© Laurenz Albe 2020 After all the technical articles I have written, I thought it would be nice to write about PostgreSQL sociology for a change. Language and community A community like PostgreSQL has no clearly defined borders. There is no membership certificate; you belong to it if you feel that you belong. That said, […]
Is UPDATE the same as DELETE + INSERT in PostgreSQL?
© Laurenz Albe 2020 Introduction We know that PostgreSQL does not update a table row in place. Rather, it writes a new version of the row (the PostgreSQL term for a row version is “tuple”) and leaves the old row version in place to serve concurrent read requests. VACUUM later removes these “dead tuples”. If […]